Standards that all students are expected to achieve in the
course of their studies are unmarked. Standards that all students
should have the opportunity to learn are marked with an asterisk
(*).
Atomic and Molecular Structure
1. The periodic table displays the elements in increasing atomic
number and shows how periodicity of the physical and chemical
properties of the elements relates to atomic structure. As a basis
for understanding this concept:
a. Students know how to relate the position of an element
in the periodic table to its atomic number and atomic mass.
b. Students know how to use the periodic table to identify
metals, semimetals, nonmetals, and halogens.
c. Students know how to use the periodic table to identify
alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and transition metals, trends
in ionization energy, electronegativity, and the relative sizes of
ions and atoms.
d. Students know how to use the periodic table to
determine the number of electrons available for bonding.
e. Students know the nucleus of the atom is much smaller
than the atom yet contains most of its mass.
f.* Students know how to use the periodic table to
identify the lanthanide, actinide, and transactinide elements and
know that the transuranium elements were synthesized and identified
in laboratory experiments through the use of nuclear accelerators.
g.* Students know how to relate the position of an element
in the periodic table to its quantum electron configuration and to
its reactivity with other elements in the table.
h.* Students know the experimental basis for Thomson's
discovery of the electron, Rutherford's nuclear atom, Millikan's oil
drop experiment, and Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric
effect.
i.* Students know the experimental basis for the
development of the quantum theory of atomic structure and the
historical importance of the Bohr model of the atom.
j.* Students know that spectral lines are the result of
transitions of electrons between energy levels and that these lines
correspond to photons with a frequency related to the energy spacing
between levels by using Planck's relationship (E = hv).
Chemical Bonds
2. Biological, chemical, and physical properties of matter result
from the ability of atoms to form bonds from electrostatic forces
between electrons and protons and between atoms and molecules. As a
basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know atoms combine to form molecules by
sharing electrons to form covalent or metallic bonds or by
exchanging electrons to form ionic bonds.
b. Students know chemical bonds between atoms in molecules
such as H_{2}, CH_{4}, NH_{3},
H_{2}CCH_{2}, N_{2}, Cl_{2}, and
many large biological molecules are covalent.
c. Students know salt crystals, such as NaCl, are
repeating patterns of positive and negative ions held together by
electrostatic attraction.
d. Students know the atoms and molecules in liquids move
in a random pattern relative to one another because the
intermolecular forces are too weak to hold the atoms or molecules in
a solid form.
e. Students know how to draw Lewis dot structures.
f.* Students know how to predict the shape of simple
molecules and their polarity from Lewis dot structures.
g.* Students know how electronegativity and ionization
energy relate to bond formation.
h.* Students know how to identify solids and liquids held
together by Van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonding and relate
these forces to volatility and boiling/melting point temperatures.
Conservation of Matter and Stoichiometry
3. The conservation of atoms in chemical reactions leads to the
principle of conservation of matter and the ability to calculate the
mass of products and reactants. As a basis for understanding this
concept:
a. Students know how to describe chemical reactions by
writing balanced equations.
b. Students know the quantity one mole is set by
defining one mole of carbon 12 atoms to have a mass of exactly 12
grams.
c. Students know one mole equals 6.02 x 10^{23}
particles (atoms or molecules).
d. Students know how to determine the molar mass of a
molecule from its chemical formula and a table of atomic masses and
how to convert the mass of a molecular substance to moles, number of
particles, or volume of gas at standard temperature and pressure.
e. Students know how to calculate the masses of reactants
and products in a chemical reaction from the mass of one of the
reactants or products and the relevant atomic masses.
f.* Students know how to calculate percent yield in a
chemical reaction.
g.* Students know how to identify reactions that involve
oxidation and reduction and how to balance oxidationreduction
reactions.
Gases and Their Properties
4. The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and
molecules and explains the properties of gases. As a basis for
understanding this concept:
a. Students know the random motion of molecules and their
collisions with a surface create the observable pressure on that
surface.
b. Students know the random motion of molecules explains
the diffusion of gases.
c. Students know how to apply the gas laws to relations
between the pressure, temperature, and volume of any amount of an
ideal gas or any mixture of ideal gases.
d. Students know the values and meanings of standard
temperature and pressure (STP).
e. Students know how to convert between the Celsius and
Kelvin temperature scales.
f. Students know there is no temperature lower than 0
Kelvin.
g.* Students know the kinetic theory of gases relates the
absolute temperature of a gas to the average kinetic energy of its
molecules or atoms.
h.* Students know how to solve problems by using the ideal
gas law in the form PV = nRT.
i.* Students know how to apply Dalton's law of partial
pressures to describe the composition of gases and Graham's law to
predict diffusion of gases.
Acids and Bases
5. Acids, bases, and salts are three classes of compounds that
form ions in water solutions. As a basis for understanding this
concept:
a. Students know the observable properties of acids,
bases, and salt solutions.
b. Students know acids are hydrogeniondonating and bases
are hydrogenionaccepting substances.
c. Students know strong acids and bases fully dissociate
and weak acids and bases partially dissociate.
d. Students know how to use the pH scale to characterize
acid and base solutions.
e.* Students know the Arrhenius, BronstedLowry, and Lewis
acidbase definitions.
f.* Students know how to calculate pH from the
hydrogenion concentration.
g.* Students know buffers stabilize pH in acidbase
reactions.
Solutions
6. Solutions are homogenous mixtures of two or more substances.
As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know the definitions of solute and
solvent.
b. Students know how to describe the dissolving process at
the molecular level by using the concept of random molecular motion.
c. Students know temperature, pressure, and surface area
affect the dissolving process.
d. Students know how to calculate the concentration of a
solute in terms of grams per liter, molarity, parts per million, and
percent composition.
e.* Students know the relationship between the molality of
a solute in a solution and the solution's depressed freezing point
or elevated boiling point.
f.* Students know how molecules in a solution are
separated or purified by the methods of chromatography and
distillation.
Chemical Thermodynamics
7. Energy is exchanged or transformed in all chemical reactions
and physical changes of matter. As a basis for understanding this
concept:
a. Students know how to describe temperature and heat flow
in terms of the motion of molecules (or atoms).
b. Students know chemical processes can either release
(exothermic) or absorb (endothermic) thermal energy.
c. Students know energy is released when a material
condenses or freezes and is absorbed when a material evaporates or
melts.
d. Students know how to solve problems involving heat flow
and temperature changes, using known values of specific heat and
latent heat of phase change.
e.* Students know how to apply Hess's law to calculate
enthalpy change in a reaction.
f.* Students know how to use the Gibbs free energy
equation to determine whether a reaction would be spontaneous.
Reaction Rates
8. Chemical reaction rates depend on factors that influence the
frequency of collision of reactant molecules. As a basis for
understanding this concept:
a. Students know the rate of reaction is the decrease in
concentration of reactants or the increase in concentration of
products with time.
b. Students know how reaction rates depend on such factors
as concentration, temperature, and pressure.
c. Students know the role a catalyst plays in increasing
the reaction rate.
d.* Students know the definition and role of activation
energy in a chemical reaction.
Chemical Equilibrium
9. Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic process at the molecular
level. As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know how to use LeChatelier's principle to
predict the effect of changes in concentration, temperature, and
pressure.
b. Students know equilibrium is established when forward
and reverse reaction rates are equal.
c.* Students know how to write and calculate an
equilibrium constant expression for a reaction.
Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry
10. The bonding characteristics of carbon allow the formation of
many different organic molecules of varied sizes, shapes, and
chemical properties and provide the biochemical basis of life. As a
basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know large molecules (polymers), such as
proteins, nucleic acids, and starch, are formed by repetitive
combinations of simple subunits.
b. Students know the bonding characteristics of carbon
that result in the formation of a large variety of structures
ranging from simple hydrocarbons to complex polymers and biological
molecules.
c. Students know amino acids are the building blocks of
proteins.
d.* Students know the system for naming the ten simplest
linear hydrocarbons and isomers that contain single bonds, simple
hydrocarbons with double and triple bonds, and simple molecules that
contain a benzene ring.
e.* Students know how to identify the functional groups
that form the basis of alcohols, ketones, ethers, amines, esters,
aldehydes, and organic acids.
f.* Students know the Rgroup structure of amino acids and
know how they combine to form the polypeptide backbone structure of
proteins.
Nuclear Processes
11. Nuclear processes are those in which an atomic nucleus
changes, including radioactive decay of naturally occurring and
humanmade isotopes, nuclear fission, and nuclear fusion. As a basis
for understanding this concept:
a. Students know protons and neutrons in the nucleus are
held together by nuclear forces that overcome the electromagnetic
repulsion between the protons.
b. Students know the energy release per gram of material
is much larger in nuclear fusion or fission reactions than in
chemical reactions. The change in mass (calculated by E =
mc^{2}) is small but significant in nuclear
reactions.
c. Students know some naturally occurring isotopes of
elements are radioactive, as are isotopes formed in nuclear
reactions.
d. Students know the three most common forms of
radioactive decay (alpha, beta, and gamma) and know how the nucleus
changes in each type of decay.
e. Students know alpha, beta, and gamma radiation produce
different amounts and kinds of damage in matter and have different
penetrations.
f.* Students know how to calculate the amount of a
radioactive substance remaining after an integral number of half
lives have passed.
g.* Students know protons and neutrons have substructures
and consist of particles called quarks.
